shuf - phpMan

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7.2 `shuf': Shuffling text
`shuf' shuffles its input by outputting a random permutation of its
input lines.  Each output permutation is equally likely.  Synopses:
     shuf [OPTION]... [FILE]
     shuf -e [OPTION]... [ARG]...
     shuf -i LO-HI [OPTION]...
   `shuf' has three modes of operation that affect where it obtains its
input lines.  By default, it reads lines from standard input.  The
following options change the operation mode:
     Treat each command-line operand as an input line.
`-i LO-HI'
     Act as if input came from a file containing the range of unsigned
     decimal integers LO...HI, one per line.

   `shuf''s other options can affect its behavior in all operation
`-n LINES'
     Output at most COUNT lines.  By default, all input lines are
     Write output to OUTPUT-FILE instead of standard output.  `shuf'
     reads all input before opening OUTPUT-FILE, so you can safely
     shuffle a file in place by using commands like `shuf -o F <F' and
     `cat F | shuf -o F'.
     Use FILE as a source of random data used to determine which
     permutation to generate.  *Note Random sources::.
     Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF).
     I.E. treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate
     output items with ASCII NUL.  This option can be useful in
     conjunction with `perl -0' or `find -print0' and `xargs -0' which
     do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even
     those containing blanks or other special characters).

   For example:
     shuf <<EOF
     A man,
     a plan,
     a canal:
might produce the output
     A man,
     a canal:
     a plan,
Similarly, the command:
     shuf -e clubs hearts diamonds spades
might output:
and the command `shuf -i 1-4' might output:
These examples all have four input lines, so `shuf' might produce any
of the twenty-four possible permutations of the input.  In general, if
there are N input lines, there are N! (i.e., N factorial, or N * (N -
1) * ... * 1) possible output permutations.
   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.